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CAD See Computer Aided Diagnosis.

CARS See Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery.

CCD See Charged Coupled Device.

CCOW See Clinical Context Object Workgroup.

Charged Coupled Device (CCD) A CCD chip is an array of light-sensitive elements. When light impinges on the elements electrons are released, producing an electrical current. The elements within the CCD chip are discrete therefore the image produced from the elements contains discrete elements or pixels. See Pixel.

Clinical Context Object Workgroup (CCOW) An ANSI-certified standard, published by the HL7 group. It aims to facilitate the visual integration of applications at their point of use (e.g. a radiologist's workstation). It complements the HL7 standard's focus on workflow and integration of data between systems by focussing on the presentation of data to the end-user, such that the shared data appears to have come from a single system. See Health Level 7 (HL7).

Clinical report A clinical report contains the clinical diagnosis of the image and is linked with the exam. The report can either be verified or unverified. See Unverified report and Verified report.

Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) A description of a PACS supplied by a vendor using standard commercial products.

Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) A modern standard developed by the Object Management Group (OMG) to allow distributed objects, in this case software programs, to communicate. The standard allows any programs running on any operating system written in any language and on any network to communicate and cooperate. It is used when applications on one computer require the results of processing on a separate computer to perform a task.

Compression See Lossless compression and Lossy compression.

Computed Radiography (CR) CR uses an imaging plate instead of film to capture an image. The plate is made of a storage phosphor that captures x-ray energy. When scanned with a laser the plate emits light. This is captured by the plate reader in order to build up an image from measurements made on the released energy.

Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery (CARS) A society which has an annual conference to discuss the effect of computers on radiology and surgery ( http://www.cars-int.de/ ). See EuroPACS, Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), Society for Computer Applications in Radiology (SCAR) and International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE).

Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) A sophisticated program which can aid the diagnosis of images,. It usually has some artificial intelligence base.

Conformance statement, DICOM conformance statement A formal statement, provided by a vendor, associated with a specific implementation of the DICOM Standard. It specifies the service classes, information objects, and communication protocols supported by the implementation. This statement is usually several pages long, and specifies precisely how any item of equipment will implement the various options allowed within the DICOM standard. See Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM).

Contrast The extent to which adjacent areas of an image on a display screen differ in relative brightness.

Contrast resolution This is the minimum perceptible difference in the luminance between two adjacent pixels a display. See Spatial resolution.

CORBA See Common Object Request Broker Architecture.

Corrective maintenance Maintenance carried out on hardware or software after fault finding in the system. See Preventative maintenance.

COTS See Commercial Off The Shelf.

CR See Computed Radiography.